Selection là gì


Today, around 140 million women are believed to lớn be "missing" around the world – the result of son preference, including gender-biased sex selection, a size of discrimination. Since the 1990s, some areas have seen up to 25 per cent more male births than female births. The rise in sex selection is alarming as it reflects the persistent low status of women & girls. The resulting gender imbalance also has a damaging effect on societies. Instances of increased sexual violence và trafficking have already been linked khổng lồ the phenomenon. is calling for renewed attention to the issue at a global level, and is accelerating efforts lớn develop programmes & policies that kết thúc all forms of discrimination, including son preference & gender-biased sex selection.

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Topic summary
How vì we know sex selection is taking place?

Gender-biased sex selection can be measured using sex ratio at birth, a comparison of the number of boys born versus the number of girls born in a given period. The biologically normal sex ratio at birth can range  from 102 to lớn 106 males per 100 females. When many more boys are born than girls, it is a sign that sex selection is taking place. Ratios as high as 130 boys per 100 girls have been observed.

The 2020 State of World Population Report indicates that more than 140 million females are considered missing today as a consequence not only of gender-biased sex selection but also of postnatal sex selection.

History of sex selection

Sex selection is not new. Census data from India, for example, show an imbalance in sex ratios among children in the early 20th century. Such disparities almost always reflect a preference for sons.

In the past, son preference may have resulted in the neglect or killing of female infants. However, since the early 1980s, ultrasounds and other technologies have enabled parents to lớn detect the sex of a foetus during prenatal screenings; those who prefer sons may arrange to lớn abort female foetuses. This has accelerated sex-ratio imbalances at birth in parts of the world.

Today, gender-biased sex selection can take place before a pregnancy is established (for example, preimplantation sex determination and selection, or “sperm sorting” for in-vitro fertilization) or during pregnancy (sex-selective abortion).

It is important to cảnh báo that while technology has enabled an additional method for sex selection, it is not the root cause of the problem. In places where son preference is not observed, the availability of these technologies does not lead to trends in gender-biased sex selection.

Postnatal sex selection also continues lớn occur; this is measured by excess deaths among female infants và young girls, reflecting the continued discrimination against và neglect of female children.

Son preference is an expression of the low value that girls are afforded in some communities. It often reflects discriminatory socio-economic practices và traditions. For example, in some places, sons alone inherit property, và they alone are expected khổng lồ care for ageing parents, conduct funeral rites & carry on the family name. Meanwhile, daughters may be considered a burden, particularly if an expensive dowry is required for them to lớn get married.

Such traditions place huge pressure on women to lớn produce sons. Some women may even face abandonment or violence if they have daughters instead of sons. Studies have shown that unwanted girls may endure neglect or be deprived of opportunities – creating a further disincentive for mothers khổng lồ have daughters, since they bởi not want to see their children suffer. Son preference ultimately affects women’s sexual and reproductive lives, with implications for their health & survival.

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The consequences of son preference, the low value of girls và gender-biased sex selection are far-reaching.

In trung quốc and India, men who would like to get married may not be able to, & there are signs that the upcoming “marriage squeeze” could have serious social consequences. Instances of increased sexual violence and human trafficking have been linked to this situation. And there has already been an increase in “cross-border brides” – women và girls migrating, or being trafficked, into areas where there are fewer women than men. These women may be unable lớn speak the local language, và may fall under intense pressure khổng lồ produce male children.

Some countries have outlawed or restricted the use of modern technologies for sex-selection purposes. However, such prohibitions are often difficult khổng lồ enforce, and they could drive demand for these technologies underground.

Tackling the root cause of son preference and gender-biased sex selection – gender inequality – may be more effective, and it yields benefits for all of society. Empowered women & girls contribute to the health and productivity of families và communities and improve prospects for future generations. Awareness of their value & contributions is essential lớn changing behaviours.

Strong political commitment và community-level action are also needed. Access to education and reproductive health services helps lớn empower women & improves their health, productivity & status. Other policies can also play a key role. Laws permitting daughters to lớn inherit property, for example, can signal that men and women have equal rights.

Such efforts have been effective in several countries and communities. In the Republic of Korea, for example, a strong women’s movement, coupled with economic development và legal reforms to lớn gender-unequal laws, helped return imbalanced sex ratios to a natural level.

For more than 20 years, has campaigned against the phenomenon, sounding the alarm over son preference and helping communities advocate against gender-biased sex selection. co-led efforts with the World Health Organization khổng lồ develop and release the first-ever UN-wide policy statement on the issue in 2011.

And in March 2017,, with funding from the European Union, launched the Global Programme to lớn Prevent Son Preference and Gender-Biased Sex Selection, the first global effort of its kind. The programme will work with governments và local partners to gather data about unequal sex ratios at birth in Asia và the Caucasus, & will kiến thiết human rights-based and gender-equality focused interventions. 

Many governments are already working closely with to address son preference. In India, for example, collaborations with the judiciary, health sector, law enforcement, media, researchers và community members – including religious organizations – have resulted in many good practices worthy of sharing.

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And in Viet Nam, supported the collection and analysis of data on sex ratio at birth, revealing skewed sex ratios, and then helped ensure the issue was put on the policy agenda. In Armenia, Albania & Azerbaijan, is working with governments to tư vấn country-wide research on the issue. Public advocacy campaigns are also being rolled out to lớn combat traditional attitudes towards girls.